Les onduleurs autonomes cours

Common base configuration CB. We know that, transistor can be used as an amplifier. It is the max. As a result the electrons drift in a direction of the applied electric field.

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Hence when there is no applied voltage, the net diffusion current will be zero. Case ii When V in is constant and R L varies. With no applied voltage if the number of charge carriers either holes or electrons in one region of a semiconductor is less compared to the rest of the region then there exist a concentration gradient.

This process is called diffusion and electric current produced due to this process is called diffusion current. The average time an electron or hole can exist in the free state is called carrier lifetime.

les onduleurs autonomes cours pdf optique

For an amplifier, two terminals are required to supply the weak signal and two terminals to collect the amplified signal. Fermi-level for an Intrinsic semiconductor.

Filter is a circuit which converts pulsating dc output from a rectifier to a steady dc output. Once the device is replaced by its equivalent circuit, the resulting network can be solved by traditional circuit analysis technique.

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It is the max. A simple circuit arrangement of CB configuration for pnp transistor is shown below. The reverse voltage characteristics of a semiconductor diode including the breakdown region is shown below. This breakdown is referred to as Zener breakdown. Hall effect is used to determine. This process is called diffusion.

They are also called as Breakdown diode or Avalanche diodes. The breakdown in the Zener diode at the voltage V z may be due to any of the following mechanisms. Electrons and holes in an intrinsic semiconductors, conductivity of a semiconductor, carrier concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor, donor and acceptor impurities, charge densities in a semiconductor, Fermi level in a semiconductor having impurities, diffusion, carrier life time, Hall effect.

Drift and Diffusion current.

The symbol of Zener diode is shown below. From the above relation we see that the reverse voltage is directly proportional to the electric field hence, a small increase in reverse voltage produces a very high intensity electric field with ina narrow Depletion region.

This time is called the carrier lifetime or Mean lifetime. Hence the output voltage across the load is also constant. Choix de la diode: It is the forward voltage at which the diode starts conducting.

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We know that for a zener diode under breakdown region large change in current produces very small change cojrs voltage, thereby the output voltage remains constant. In otherwords, filters are used to reduce the amplitudes of the unwanted ac components in the rectifier. Ce courant est presque constant.

Common collector configuration CC. Autonlmes four terminals are required but a transistor is said to have only three terminals Therefore, one terminal is used common for both input and output. The ripple factor for a Half-wave rectifier with C-filer is given by. The circuit diagram of Zener voltage regulator is shown below.

Semiconductors are classified into two types.

les onduleurs autonomes cours pdf optique

It is the Max. Hall effect is normally used to determine whether a semi-conductor is n-type or p-type. Choke Input Filter LC-filter.

Electronics essentially deals with electronic devices and their utilization.

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