It would set out a priori a 'pure part' of legal science, consisting of a framework of fundamental concepts. They form deep, universal, and necessary features of human cognition. Nevertheless, a comparison seems at least plausible.
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Furthermore, legal systems are themselves organized in a hierarchical structure, manifesting a great deal of complexity but also a certain systematic unity.
Kelsen's Pure Theory of Law
By the end of World War II, however, he gave up on this aspiration as unrealistic and, with evident reluctance, accepted a sort of optional monism. The classes also cannot contradict, i. This norm is simply that 'the historically first constitution is to be obeyed'. Thus, whether you actually presuppose the relevant basic norm is a matter of choice, it is an ideological option, as it were, not something that is dictated by Reason. Theoru, Early, and Medieval Theogy and Writers: To presuppose a basic norm for a particular positive-legal order does not involve any moral or other extra-legal evaluation of the basic norm's requirement of obedience.
However, most if not all jurists now accept H. One translation renders Rechtssatz as 'rule of law in a descriptive sense'. Such a norm is instead a moral or social norm posited by a legal organ who is not exercising their legal capacity. End Matter Bibliography Index.
The Pure Theory of Law (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
If all the premises of an argument are descriptive, telling us what this or that is the case, then there is no prescriptive conclusion that can logically follow. It seems to me that there is some wiggle room here, to prevent extreme cases.
Officials are directed to apply sanctions to individuals when the individuals' behaviour does not conform to a pattern specified in the norm. Critical Perspectives on Kelsenian Themes.
Ideas of natural law are also excluded by Kelsen's rejection of 'metaphysics' in a strong sense, supposing something supra-human.
It is, at the least, one of the high points of modernist legal theory. In the first paragraph of Pure Theory of LawKelsen introduces his theory as being a theory of positive law.
Since this moment of creation always involves extraneous considerations, Kelsen does not need to supplement his model with a concept of 'discretion'.
Kelsen did not lxw that moral discussion was still possible and even to be encouraged in the sociological domain of intersubjective activity. Anarchism is understood here precisely as a rejection of the normative validity of law; however, even the anarchist can make an argument about what the puree in this or that context requires; and when she makes such an argument, she must presuppose the legal point of view, she must argue as if she endorses the basic norm of the relevant legal system.
The application of the law, in order to be protected from moral influence or political influence, needed to be safeguarded by its separation from the sphere of conventional moral influence or political influence. The structure is as follows:. Second, he discusses interpretation as an act of cognition and of voluntary will.
He found both of these reductionist endeavors seriously flawed. What makes legal normativity unique is the uniqueness of kelseh point of view, the legal point of view, as it were.
Identification of law as characteristically coercive is more difficult with public international law, but Kelsen finds sufficient sanctions. Then, in an empirical part of legal science, this framework would be applied to empirical sociological, historical and so on lzw so as to understand that material as 'law'.
This type of legal science would be 'pure' in two senses as described below. Being a legal proposition, it theeory as a representation of an actual norm. The two classes are related in asymmetrical ways. Another part of the problem lay in the requirement that the 'basic' factor be, or count as, a norm.
Classical, Early, kelseen Medieval Plays and Playwrights: This hierarchical theory was largely adopted from Adolf Merkl's research in the structural aspects of the law while Kelsen was still in Vienna. Be this as it may, the main worry lies elsewhere. He defines a 'norm' as 'the meaning of an act of will'.