At first glance, the tiny plant duckweed Lemna seems to have little in common with a giant saguaro cactus or a redwood tree. Cells usually differentiate into specialized types after they elongate. In subsequent chapters we will treat these structures in greater detail from the perspective of their physiological functions in the plant life cycle. At the nodes, axillary budscontain the apical meristems for branch shoots.
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Plant Physiology - Taiz e Zeiger - Livro Fisiologia Vegetal Taiz (inglês)
Afundamental difference between plants and animals is that each plant cell is surrounded by a rigid cell wall. We can summarize the major design elements of plants as follows:. Fisiologia vegetal - metabolismo do carbono Fisiologia vegetal - metabolismo do carbono. Plant morphology, or shape, is also surprisingly diverse. Inserts show longitudinal sections of a shoot tip and a root tip from flax Linum usitatissimumshowing the apical meristems.
Gymnospermsare the less fiisologia type; about species are known. The evolution of lignified secondary cell walls provided plants with the structural reinforcement necessary to grow vertically above the soil and to colonize the land.
Three major tissue vfgetal are found in all plant organs: Plants range in size from less than 1 cm tall to greater than m. In subsequent chapters we will treat these structures in greater detail from the perspective of their physiological functions in the plant life cycle.
The primary function of a leaf is photosynthesis, that of the stem is support, and that of the root is anchorage and absorption of water and minerals. Lateral roots arise from the pericycle, an internal meristematic tissue see Figure 1. The phase of plant development that gives rise to new organs and to the basic plant form is called primary growth.
This book will emphasize the physiological and biochemical functions of plants, but it is important to recognize that these functions depend on structures, whether the process is gas exchange in the leaf, water conduction in the xylem, photosynthesis in the chloroplast, or ion transport across the plasma membrane.
Fiisiologia can summarize the major design elements of plants as follows: The stem together with its leaves is commonly referred to as the shoot.
Plant Physiology - Taiz e Zeiger
Primary growth results from the activity of apical meristems, in which cell division is followed by progressive cell enlargement, typically elongation. There are two categories of seed plants: As a substitute for motility, they have evolved the ability to grow toward essential resources, such as light, water, and mineral nutrients, throughout their life span.
They harvest the energy of sunlight by vegeatl light energy to chemical energy, which they store in bonds formed when they synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. The vascular cambium gives rise to secondary xylem wood and secondary phloem. Secondary cell walls owe their strength and toughness to lignin, a brittle, gluelike material see Chapter The cork cambium produces the periderm, consisting mainly of cork cells.
Cross sections of A the leaf, B the stem, and C the root are also shown. Bryophytes, which lack lignified cell walls, are unable to grow more than a few centimeters above the ground. Secondary growth involves two lateral meristems: Fisiologia Vegetal - Taiz Fisiologia vegetal completo em imagem. Cells usually differentiate into specialized types after they elongate. At first glance, the tiny plant duckweed Lemna seems to have little in common with a giant saguaro cactus or a redwood tree.
In plants, such cell migrations are prevented because each walled cell and its neighbor are cemented together by a middle lamella. Plant cells have two types of walls: It was first used in biology in by the English botanist Robert Hooke to describe the individual units of the honeycomb-like structure he observed in cork under a compound microscope.
In animals, embryonic cells can migrate from one location to another, resulting in the development of tissues and organs containing cells that originated in different parts of the organism.
The spectacular diversity of plant size and form is familiar to everyone. Despite their apparent diversity, all seed plants seeWeb Topic 1.